Systems thinking








The methods for the Large Group Interventions used in an LSI-process stem from a range of disciplines:

  • Action research
  • Gestalt psychology
  • Systems theory/ Chaos theory
  • Organisation development
  • Socio-technology

Profound testing and experiencing have led to a "family" of LGI-methods, with an extensive genealogy. Each method is associated with their developers, mostly American researchers. The figure, made by Jack Martin Leith, illustrates the historical cohesion of theory and methods (click to enlarge.


Tips history LSI

Brief history of Open Space

Book Productive Workplaces, 3rd edition
(Marvin Weisbord)

With 40 personal stories of pratitioners (e.g. Tonnie van der Zouwen) influenced by earlier editions.


Historical overview: Chapter 4 of the book Building an evidence based practical guide to Large Scale Interventions (Tonnie van der Zouwen).



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